C-Papers


论文题名
“21世纪贸易协定”技术性壁垒规则:内容、特征及启示
Title
Rules of Technical Barriers to Trade in the “21st Century Trade Agreements”:Content, Features and Implications
作者
李冬冬
Institution
厦门大学法学院
期刊名称
国际经贸探索
CN
44-1302/F
ISSN
1002-0594
出版日期
2016-11-25
Volume
v.32;No.239
Issue
11
YM
99-113
GJZ
21世纪贸易协定;TBT-plus规则;监管一致性规则;监管合作规则;启示
Keywords
21st Century Trade Agreements;TBT-plus rules;regulatory coherence rules;regulatory cooperation rules;implications
LWZY
技术性贸易壁垒正成为继边境措施后贸易自由化的主要障碍,因此成为"21世纪贸易协定"关注的重点议题。与TBT协定相比,TPP协定和绿色和平组织披露的TTIP草案对技术性壁垒规则做了重大发展,包括TBT-plus、监管一致性和监管合作等规则。鉴于TPP协定和TTIP草案对中国可能造成不利影响,中国宜主动根据上述规则对今后缔结的FTA和相关国内立法做出必要修改调整,包括明确和统一国际标准的含义、提高透明度要求、将产品附件作为FTA谈判的常设议题、适时将监管一致性规则全面纳入FTA中、修补监管合作规则等,同时应注意维持贸易自由化和监管自主权之间的平衡。
Abstract
Technical barriers to trade are becoming the main obstacles to trade liberalization after border measures, so they have been a key issue in the negotiations of the "21st century trade agreements". Compared with TBT Agreement, the TPP Agreement and TTIP draft leaked by the Greenpeace have made some important progress in the rules of technical barriers to trade, including TBT- plus, regulatory coherence and regulatory cooperation. Given the TPP Agreement and TTIP draft may impose adverse effects to China, China should make some necessary amendments and adjustments to its future FTAs and domestic laws based on the rules above, such as clarifying and unifying the definition of international standards,enhance the transparency requirements, making the product annex as a standing negotiation issue in the future FTAs, incorporating the regulatory coherence rules into the future FTAs comprehensively in the appropriate juncture, and improving the regulatory cooperation rules. In the meantime, China should also pay attention to preserving the balance between trade liberalization and regulatory autonomy.
Ref
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(4)EU Proposal for an Annex on Engineering,14 July 2016,Art.4;EU Proposal for an Annex on Cosmetics,14 July 2016,Art.4. (5)EU-Korea FTA,Art.4.5.1;ANNEX 2-B,Art.2. (6)TTIP Leaks,Note-Tactical State of Play of the TTIP Negotiations,pp.10-11. (7)TPP Agreement,Art.8.7.9-11;TTIP Leaks,Technical Barriers to Trade Chapter,EU:Art.5.1,US:Art.4.3-4. (8)TPP Agreement,Art.8.7.1,8.7.14-15;TTIP Leaks,Technical Barriers to Trade Chapter,EU:Art.5.2(b),US:Art.4.1,4.6. (9)TPP Agreement,Art.8.7.13,8.7.18;TTIP Leaks,Technical Barriers to Trade Chapter,EU:Art.5.2(a),US:Art.4.8. (10)TPP Agreement,Annex 8-E,Art.8. (11)TPP Agreement,Annex 8-G,Art.4. (12)TTIP Leaks,Note-Tactical State of Play of the TTIP Negotiations,pp.12-18. (13)TPP Agreement,Art.25.4;TTIP Leaks,Initial Provisions for Chapter[EU:Regulatory Cooperation;US Regulatory Coherence,Transparency,and Other Good Regulatory Practices],Art.X.5;TTIP EU Proposal for Chapter:Good Regulatory Practices,Art.3. 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(19)TPP协定中机构名称为监管一致性委员会(Committee on Regulatory Coherence),TTIP草案中为监管合作机构(Regulatory Cooperation Body),二者功能和职责非常相近。为方便叙述,本文统称为监管合作机构。 (20)TPP Agreement,Art.25.8:TTIP Leaks,Initial Provisions for Chapter[EU:Regulatory Cooperation:US Regulatory Coherence,Transparency,and Other Good Regulatory Practices],Art.X.24. (21)TPP Agreement,Art.25.7:TTIP Leaks,Initial Provisions for Chapter[EU:Regulatory Cooperation:US Regulatory Coherence,Transparency,and Other Good Regulatory Practices],Art.X.19,X.21;TTIP EU Proposal for Chapter:Regulatory Cooperation,Art.X.1,X.5. (22)TPP Agreement,Art.25.7:TTIP EU Proposal for Chapter:Regulatory Cooperation,Art.X.9.. (23)TPP Agreement,Art.25.9:TTIP Leaks,Initial Provisions for Chapter[EU:Regulatory Cooperation;US Regulatory Coherence,Transparency,and Other Good Regulatory Practices],Art.X.23. 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(25)在这14个FTA中,中国——东盟FTA及其升级协定仅在《中华人民共和国与东南亚国家联盟全面经济合作框架协议》第7条第3款规定,双方应当加强在标准及一致化评定以及技术性贸易壁垒和非关税措施领域内的合作;除此之外并未规定其他详细的技术性壁垒规则;内地与香港和澳门《关于建立更紧密经贸关系的安排》在各自正文第6条规定,一方将不对原产于另一方的进口货物采取与世界贸易组织规则不符的非关税措施;除此之外也很少涉及其他关于技术性壁垒的详细规则。因此,本文的考察对象不包括上述4个FTA。 (26)中国——智利FTA第63条第2款;中国——秘鲁FTA第96条第2款。 (27)中国——瑞士FTA第6.4条;中国——韩国FTA第6.4条第3款。 (28)例如,我国分别于2008年和2011年当选ISO和IEC常任理事国,2014年又以高票连任ITU理事国;中国标准化专家委员会委员、国际钢铁协会副主席张晓刚于2013年9月成功当选ISO主席,国家电网公司舒印彪副总经理于2013年1月出任IEC副主席,原ITU副秘书长赵厚麟于2014年10月出任秘书长。 (29)《中华人民共和国标准化法(修订草案征求意见稿)》第9、13条。 (30)参见,《国务院关于印发深化标准化工作改革方案的通知》[EB/OL].http://www.gov.cn/zhengce/content/2015-03/26/content_9557.htm;(31)参见,《立法法》第37-39条;《行政法规制定程序条例》第24条;《规章制定程序条例》第17条。 (32)中国——新西兰FTA,第102条第1款、附件十四;中国——瑞士FTA,第6.9条第2款,附件五;中国——新加坡FTA,第58条第1款。 (33)See,APEC,Leaders Declarations[EB/OL].http://www.apec.org/Meeting-Papers/Leaders-Declarations.aspx. (34)《全面推进依法行政实施纲要》第17条,《关于加强法治政府建设的意见》第7-8条。 (35)中国——新西兰FTA,第96条。 (36)中国——新西兰FTA第100条第5款;中国——瑞士FTA第6.7条第8款;中国——澳大利亚FTA第13条第2款。 (37)TPP Agreement,Art.25.5.1;TTIP EU Proposal for Chapter:Good Regulatory Practices,Art.8.1. (38)TTIP EU Proposal for Chapter:Good Regulatory Practices,Art.11;TTIP EU Proposal for Chapter:Regulatory Cooperation,Art.X.9. (39)中国——新加坡FTA,第56-57条。
Fund_Code
FileName
GJTS201611008

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